Thursday, May 21, 2020

Miller Shettleworth Essay - 21273 Words

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 2007, Vol. 33, No. 3, 191–212 Copyright 2007 by the American Psychological Association 0097-7403/07/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0097-7403.33.3.191 Learning About Environmental Geometry: An Associative Model Noam Y. Miller and Sara J. Shettleworth University of Toronto K. Cheng (1986) suggested that learning the geometry of enclosing surfaces takes place in a geometric module blind to other spatial information. Failures to find blocking or overshadowing of geometry learning by features near a goal seem consistent with this view. The authors present an operant model in which learning spatial features competes with geometry learning, as in the Rescorla–Wagner model. Relative total†¦show more content†¦The signature phenomena of cue competition in conditioning are overshadowing and blocking. In overshadowing (Pavlov, 1927), when two cues are redundant predictors of the same outcome, less is learned about either than when it is the sole predictor of the outcome. In blocking (Kamin, 1969), training with a single cue reduces (blocks) learning about a second, redundant cue added later. Several studies have looked for blocking or overshadowing of geometric information by features (for a review, see Cheng Newcombe, 2005). Most studies have concluded that a predictive feature near a goal does not block learning about the shape of an enclosure (e.g., Hayward, Good, Pearce, 2004; Pearce et al., 2001; Wall et al., 2004). Moreover, in contrast with the expected competition between cues, geometry is sometimes learned better in the presence than in the absence of informative features. Pearce et al. (2001), for example, found that a beacon improved learning about the geometry of a triangular water tank. Other researchers have come across hints of this same phenomenon (e.g., Hayward et al., 2004; Hayward, McGregor, Good, Pearce, 2003). Using a geometrically unambiguous kite-shaped water tank, Graham, Good, McGregor, and Pearce (2006) demonstrated in rats substantial potentiation of geometry learning by a feature. Kelly and Spetch (2004a, 2004b) also found clear evidence of potentiation of geometry learning by a feature in an operant task in which people and pigeons were

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social Problems in Thailand - 2244 Words

Social Problems in Thailand World around us today are filled with problems, complications, and dilemmas. People faces problems in everyday life, but problems that people living in the same society face commonly are called social problems. Before discussing social problems in our society, we must first give criteria of how we define social problems. Firstly, the objective condition must be perceived to be a social problem publicly. That is, there must be some public outcry. People must become actively involved in discussing the problem and finding solution to solve the problem. Public attention becomes directed toward that social condition. Second, the condition must involve a gap between social ideals and social reality. That is, the†¦show more content†¦Aside from pleasing customers, and obey the rules set by brothels owners, prostitutes deals with the pressure of being far away from home, health concerns including pregnancy and sometimes guilt. Regardless of the human rights issue concerning prostit ute, the government stressed its actions on the image of the country. But rather than trying to solve or eliminate the problem, they put their effort in covering the problem instead. Other than women prostitution problem, child prostitution is also a growing problem in the country right now. Because there is an apparent increasing demand globally, part of it is driven by the fear of AIDS and the belief that younger sex partners are free of disease. The laws were strengthened by new legislation which significantly increased the penalties for those caught engaging in sex with children. As applied to women prostitution, the law targets customers, procurers, pimps, and owners of brothels as well as parents who sell their children to profiteers. Moreover, foreign nationals are not exempt from Thai law. Those who engage in sexual activity with children are subject to arrest and imprisonment. Poverty is probably the most important factor contributing to the growth of child prostitution. Children offer themselves or, in some cases, are sold for sex in return for money. What is leading to this could be the lack of viable economic opportunities, particularly in rural Show MoreRelatedThe Military Force of Thailand1341 Words   |  5 PagesMalaysia and others, Thailand military forces portrayed a significant concern pertaining to internal turbulence within Thailand. (Simon, 2000, p. 13) This is because, for several decades, since communist aggression and until todays, internal security has become the main core focus of Thailand military forces in the aspects of defence and security of Thailand (Taylor, 2013, p. 12); compared to other aspects such as external defence. Before discussing or deliberating the roles of Thailand military forcesRead MoreThe Economic And Social Development Plan1211 Words   |  5 Pagesthe First National Economic and Social Development Plan began in 1961, emphasis has been on economic development. Natural resources and human capital expanded the production base, employment opportunities and national income. These guidelines were appropriate for and consistent with the country s situation in the early period of national d evelopment because of abundant natural resources and an excess labour supply, especially in the agricultural sector. Thailand s production and exports, thereforeRead MoreStereotypes Against Indian People in Thailand1269 Words   |  5 PagesIndians are the group of people who receive a lot of stereotypes in Thailand. Ranging from public places like shopping centers, parties house, hall way, to university campus, we can notice that many Thai people try to avoid staying close to or interact with Indians. 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DEFINITIONS The term ‘Culture’Read MoreTartans in Thailand - Pernod Ricard’s Thai Whisky War of 2007803 Words   |  4 PagesLovely Professional University Department of Management Case Study Write Up Tartans in Thailand - Pernod Ricard’s Thai Whisky War of 2007 Case Facts Thailand * World’s 21st most populous country with 64 million residents * Most of the population was rural, with only 33 percent living in urban areas, and increasing at a rate of 1.7 percent per year * One of the most attractive East Asian markets with foreign investment-friendly policies and an established infrastructure ScotchRead MoreHuman Trafficking And Human Rights Violations846 Words   |  4 Pagesall over the globe especially Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. There is a misunderstanding that this global issue only happens in third world countries, but civilized countries are involved as well. 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Case Study on Teamwork Problem Free Essays

string(28) " them bring to the company\." Case Study Summary Mike Garcia and Jill Hendrickson have been butting heads for months at work. Mike is a manufacturing manager at Auto Safety Products, which is a firm in the Midwest that designs and produces automobile seat belts and infant and child safety seats. Jill is a design engineer for the same firm. We will write a custom essay sample on Case Study on Teamwork Problem or any similar topic only for you Order Now Top management at their work instituted concurrent engineering, a team-based system that integrates manufacturing and design processes. Concurrent engineering is intended to eliminate the problems that often occur in industry when designers are unaware of the needs of manufacturing. Through concurrent engineering, management hoped to improve attention to all elements of the product life cycle and manufacture a quality, low-cost product that will meet user needs. The company was also hoping to decrease the amount of time it takes to move from initial conceptual design to actual production. Both Mike and Jill are on the team working on toddler booster seats. This is an important product for Auto Safety Products, as research has indicated that parents do not use safety seats once children reach toddler age. The reason for this is because they are difficult to use in cars and uncomfortable for the children. Thus the team at Auto Safety Products worked to make the seats easier for parents to use by making them more comfortable, more portable, and more compatible with a range of automobiles from small sports cars to sedans to minivans to SUVs. Mike is 55-years-old and has worked in manufacturing for most of his life. He has spent the past 22 years working at Auto Safety Products. Mike has always felt some animosity toward the design side of the firm. He found the engineers unwilling to listen to the problems faced in manufacturing. He often complained that the design department generates projects that run into all sorts of problems once they hit manufacturing. He approached the new concurrent engineering program at his work. Jill is 25-years-old and is a mechanical engineer who has been with Auto Safety Products since her college graduation. Jill is assertive and strong-minded; she believes she has to be effective in the male-dominated world of engineering. She learned about the concurrent engineering concept when she was in school and she believes it can greatly improve the effectiveness of design and manufacturing. Unfortunately, it has not worked at Auto Safety Products. The manufacturing side has not really bought into the process, and management did not take the time to introduce the team management system properly and train people to work together. Jill has a hard time with Mike Garcia, who is the lead manufacturing representative on her team. Jill and Mike had to work together frequently on a booster seat design in a variety of vans. Their inability to work together has gotten so bad that their supervisor had to set up a meeting to help them deal with the problem. Adam Shapiro is the project supervisor at Auto Safety Products. He oversaw the booster seat project team that Mike and Jill worked on. Adam knows the two of them have not hit it off on the concurrent engineering team and had decided that the conflict had gotten to the point where he must step in and help them settle it. He brought them in individually and asked them about the problem and what the problem was. Jill was the first person Adam talked to. According to Jill the problem is that Mike would not listen to her ideas and downplays the contributions that design can make to concurrent engineering. On the other hand she sees design as the most important part of the concurrent engineering process. Jill suspects that Mike has problems with her because she is young and a woman, and this has made her push even harder for her point of view on project disagreements. After Jill discussed the problem with Adam, Mike was the next person to discuss the problem with Adam. Mike thinks the concurrent engineering system and the booster seat team in particular is a joke. He says that the design engineers are still trying to push their ideas down the manufacturing’s throat and he’s tired of it. Also Mike would like to go back to doing things the old way. However, if he is forced to continue with the concurrent engineering system, he refuses to give in to every one of Jill’s ideas. Case Analysis Questions 1a. What kind of predispositions are Mike and Jill taking into this conflict situation? Mike believes that engineers are â€Å"uppity† and unwilling to listen to the problems dealing with manufacturing. As a female engineer Jill feels as though she needs to be effective in the male-dominated world of engineering 1b. How might these predispositions influence the way the frame the conflict and the way they approach each other? These predispositions are definitely negatively influencing the way Mike and Jill approach each other. Obviously they are going to automatically approach each other negatively because of their opinions. 2a. If Mike and Jill were to attempt to deal with this conflict on their own, what conflict style would you recommend? If Mike and Jill were to attempt to deal with this conflict on their own I would recommend that they use the compromising conflict style. Compromising will allow you to achieve both of your goals, resulting in a â€Å"win-win† situation instead of a â€Å"win-lose† situation. 2b. Given what you know about Jill and Mike, do you think they would use an effective conflict resolution style? No, because when the problem first arose they had a hard time coming to a common ground resolution. I believe if it wasn’t for Adam they would have never resolved the problem. 3a. If you were Adam, how would you approach this conflict? If I was Adam, I would sit them both down together and have them write down the benefits that each of them bring to the company. You read "Case Study on Teamwork Problem" in category "Essay examples" b. What strategies should you use to help Mike and Jill deal with their ongoing problems? A strategy that I l would use is integrative bargaining. In integrative bargaining, the conflicting parties are trying to maximize gains for both parties (Miller, 2012). The bargainers discuss issues that could lead to a more creative solution to the problem at hand. Outcomes of integrative bargaining are often solution that allow both parties to benefit, and communication tends to be marked by open disclosure, careful listening and multiple communication channels. I believe this is the perfect strategy to use because with both Mike and Jill having problems with each other and the way they do things, if Adam uses this strategy I think you would solve problems for both people. 3c. Would you consider bringing in a mediator to help them work through their issues? I think there should be a mediator in the meeting as well, just in case things would get intense and they could not come up with a fair compromise. 4a. How would a feminist approach to conflict see this situation? They would see this situation that Mike is wrong and Jill is right. They would see it this way because a feminist approach would say that men don’t listen to women and they don’t take them as serious as other men especially in the workforce. 4b. Is it possible to use an alternative model that would recast this situation in a more productive frame? No because I think Adam handled this situation the right way by bringing Mike and Jill in and have them discuss the problem. This way is more productive because they can express themselves without knowing what the other person said. You can cover more ground by one-on-one problem solving. Effective Student Teams: A Faux Hiring and Peer Evaluation Process Student team projects provide benefits to the education process and provide experience that is valued by some employers. But team projects can be a source of conflict. Due to free-riding, scheduling problems and differing goals, there are fertile grounds for team conflicts. Therefore, there needs to be a better method of forming teams and a process to assure shared goals by team members (Lane 2011). The author Michelle Lane discussed the Faux Hiring Team Selection Process. In this process there are six steps to form and select a team. Step one is the selection of interviewers. Step two is posting interviewee’s applications for review by classmates and interviewers. The third step is to hold a â€Å"Job Fair† where a faux interview process occurs. The fourth step is the selection of personal top choices by both interviewers and interviewees. The next step is the instructor team assignment. Finally the forming and the signing of the team contract is the last step. Results In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the faux hiring process, two classes of 40 students each were studied in the fall semester 2009. Independent T-Tests showed no statistical difference between the two classes in terms of age and GPA. In the first class the teams were assigned randomly by the instructor and in the second class the job fair approach was used. The teams were used for two projects that took place over the semester. One project involved the use of the CAPSIM simulation. The second project was a business study requiring research, an interview and a class presentation of their findings. Each project was worth 20% of their course grade. (Lane 2011) The effectiveness of the faux hiring team assignment was assessed in two ways. The first way was the total team points earned from the simulation and the business projects were compared using a t-test of mean group differences. The results were significant with the faux hiring teams scoring higher than the randomly assigned teams. The second assessment was at the end of the semester, students were asked to fill out an anonymous online survey about their team experience. There were 43 respondents to this survey. 19 were from the instructor assigned teams and the remaining 24 were from the faux hiring teams. The results show that the faux hiring teams had stronger scores on shared goals, and had fewer conflicts. This article relates to our case study because it is an example of a way to prevent teamwork problems. This article basically says to go through an interview process to find a good team that has common goals and would get along to avoid conflicts. Whereas the case study does not use a process like this and Mike and Jill have a problem and are unable to resolve it. What is Expected from Supervisors This article was about how the past 10 years that team members enter the workforce as well as management or leadership emphasis influences different images of supervisors. There were certain features of management discussion during the past decades that are used as instruments in addressing the contributing research question: What is still expected from management and leadership? Liisa Huusko found that team member who are not the same age have different images of supervisors. Thus they wait partly for different actions within team organization. Human Resource Management issues seem to be included in supervisors’ duties in every decade. For example, encouraging and career-development matters do not appear until the 1980s. Furthermore, different kinds of computer-aided control systems are not able to respond to quick changes and uncommon situations relating to everyday duties. The image of supervisors that workers take for granted must be taken into consideration during the changes and shifts between responsible actors. This article relates to our case study because it shows that age does have an effect on teamwork. Age makes a difference because the older people want to do it the way they have been used to all their life and not want to change with younger generation as well as the technology that is changing. Some older generation refuse to update their technology and it is having an effect with teamwork. Finally, this goes with the case study because this article presents a male-female problem, where the male refuses to listen to the female’s idea. NBA Lockout: Can Both Sides Agree on Basketball-Related Income? I obtained this article from the Los Angeles Times Newspaper. The article was written and published on October 28, 2011. It talks about the National Basketball Association (NBA) lockout and how the players union and the owners are struggling to agree on terms for salary cap and other issues. This is an example of teamwork and the problems with teamwork. For example, the NBA deputy commissioner Adam Silver and Spurs owner Peter Hold said the players union offered a decrease from 53% to 52. 5% but wouldn’t discuss anything further if owners wouldn’t offer more than 50% (Medina, 2011). With the two sides going back and forth and unable to come up with a number they could agree they have brought in a mediator to help with negotiations. But even with the mediator the two sides still have not agree on terms. Thus, the NBA season is in jeopardy. NBA Commissioner David Stern has already cancelled all games through November. How to cite Case Study on Teamwork Problem, Free Case study samples

Friday, April 24, 2020

Supreme Essay Essay Example

Supreme Essay Paper Finding an appropriate company who can write a supreme essay is an uphill task that many students face on daily basis in their quest to get an outstanding essay. It important to recognize that there are millions of online essay writing companies who purport to be experienced in writing original and non-plagiarized custom essay. The truth of these allegations is that most of online research writing companies are owned by quacks who cannot even write an elementary essay. Most of them can’t even follow the instructions given by your lecturer, ending up uploading to you a substandard custom essay, full of mistakes and plagiarism. In order not to fall a prey in these companies, always scrutinize their terms and conditions page and ascertain whether they give you unlimited rights as you order with them. They should allow unlimited revisions and should give you the right of paper uploaded to you. In order to benefit from our supreme essays, fill the order form and wait for an authentic A+ custom paper. We are professionals with a wide range of experience in writing supreme essays that conform with all your instructions and paper requirements. Our customer support will be more than glad to make sure that writer has followed all your instructions and delivered your paper due to date. As well as our professional academic writers will provide with the paper written on the top level of writing. We will write a custom essay sample on Supreme Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Supreme Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Supreme Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Segmentation criteria for 2 products bottled water and breakfast cereal.

Segmentation criteria for 2 products bottled water and breakfast cereal. Marketing. ¢Ã‚€Â ¢Segmentation criteria for 2 products bottled water and breakfast cereal.Marketers segment markets because it helps them to match their products better to their customers, as every customer is different (age, sex, etc.) and has differing needs and wants dividing the market into segments helps the marketer focus on these subgroups leading to a 'target market'.This target market can then be selected and a marketing mix can be made especially for them. This can save a business time and money as it can be planned well as it is aimed straight at potential customers. Also a greater understanding of who these customers are and what their needs are can enable the business to gain a competitive advantage.This is different from undifferentiated marketing where one marketing mix is made for the whole market (mass marketing). (Brassington Pettitt, 2006).Consumer markets can be segmented in a few ways to group together customers with similar characteristics and needs.Englis h: Images of bottled waterMore than one segmentation variable can be used (multivariable segmentation.). ¢Ã‚€Â ¢Geographic location - This is based on that certain characteristics of people are assumed to be similar within certain countries and regions i.e. religion / culture. They will be affected by the same climate, may have similar income and influenced by the natural geography of the area and country. ¢Ã‚€Â ¢Demographically - This is based on the different characteristics found within the population. Age (e.g. clothing) and gender (e.g. beauty products). Family size (e.g. size of products) and Ethnic background (e.g. food). Life cycle stage (e.g. types of holidays, Saga /Club18-30). ¢Ã‚€Â ¢Psychographic and Behavioural - This is based on what people think and how this affects how they want to live their lives.Social class, this can be divided by social stratification showing differences in purchasing power and patterns of behaviour.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Geography of Madagascar

Geography of Madagascar Madagascar  is a large island nation located in the  Indian Ocean  east of Africa and the country Mozambique. It is the fourth largest island in the world and it is an  African country. Madagascars official name is the Republic of Madagascar. The country is sparsely populated with a  population density  of only 94 persons per square mile (36 persons per square kilometer). As such, most of Madagascar is undeveloped, incredibly biodiverse forest land. Madagascar is home to 5% of the worlds species, many of which are native only to Madagascar. Population:  21,281,844 (July 2010 estimate)Capital:  AntananarivoArea:  226,658 square miles (587,041 sq km)Coastline:  3,000 miles (4,828 km)Highest Point:  Maromokotro at 9,435 feet (2,876 m)Lowest Point:  The Indian Ocean History of Madagascar It is believed that Madagascar was uninhabited until the 1st century C.E. when sailors from Indonesia arrived on the island. From there, migrations from other Pacific lands as well as Africa increased and various tribal groups began to develop in Madagascar- the largest of which was the Malagasy. The written history of Madagascar did not begin until the 7th century C.E. when Arabs began setting up trading posts on the islands northern coastal regions.European contact with Madagascar did not begin until the 1500s. At that time, the Portuguese captain, Diego Dias discovered the island while on a voyage to India. In the 17th century, the French established various along the east coast. In 1896, Madagascar officially became a French colony.Madagascar remained under French control until 1942 when  British troops  occupied the area during World War II. In 1943, though the French retook the island from the British and maintained control until the late 1950s. In 1956, Madagascar began moving toward independence and on October 14, 1958, the Malagasy Republic was formed as an independent state within the French colonies. In 1959, Madagascar adopted its first constitution and achieved full independence on June 26, 1960. Government of Madagascar Today, Madagascars government is considered a republic with a legal system based on French civil law and traditional Malagasy laws. Madagascar as an executive branch of government that is made up of a  chief of state  and a head of state, as well as a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senat and the Assemblee Nationale. Madagascars judicial branch of government is comprised of the Supreme Court and the High Constitutional Court. The country is divided into six provinces (Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, and Toliara) for local administration. Economics and Land Use in Madagascar Madagascars economy is currently growing but at a slow pace. Agriculture is the main sector of the economy and employs about 80% of the countrys population. The main agricultural products of Madagascar include coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts, and livestock products. The country does have a small amount of industry of which the largest are: meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly, paper, and petroleum. In addition, with the rise of  ecotourism, Madagascar has seen a rise in tourism and the related service sector industries. Geography, Climate, and Biodiversity of Madagascar Madagascar is considered a part of southern Africa as it is located in the  Indian Ocean east of Mozambique. It is a large island that has a narrow coastal plain with a high plateau and mountains in its center. Madagascars highest mountain is Maromokotro at 9,435 feet (2,876 m).The climate of Madagascar varies based on location on the island but it is tropical along the coastal regions, temperate inland and arid in the south its portions. Madagascars capital and largest city, Antananarivo, which is located in the northern part of the country somewhat away from the coast has a January average high temperature of 82 °F (28 °C) and a July average low of 50 °F (10 °C).Madagascar is most well-known around the world for its rich biodiversity and  tropical rainforests. The island is home to about 5% of the worlds plant and animal species and about 80% of those are endemic or native only to Madagascar. These include all species of  lemurs  and about 9,000 different species of plants. Because of their isolation on Madagascar, many of these endemic species are also threatened or endangered due to increasing  deforestation  and development. To protect its species, Madagascar has many national parks, and nature and wildlife reserves. In addition, there are several  UNESCO certified  World Heritage Sites  on Madagascar called the  Rainforests of the Atsinanana. More Facts about Madagascar Madagascar has a life expectancy of 62.9 years. Its official languages are Malagasy, French, and English. Today, Madagascar has 18 Malagasy tribes, as well as groups of French, Indian Comoran, and Chinese people. References Central Intelligence Agency. (27 May 2010).  CIA - The World Factbook - Madagascar.Infoplease.com. (n.d.).  Madagascar: History, Geography, Government, and Culture, Infoplease.com.United States Department of State. (2 November 2009).  Madagascar.Wikipedia. (14 June 2010).  Madagascar, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Astronomy 101 for 2 year college Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Astronomy 101 for 2 year college - Lab Report Example 5% of them seem to split in two facular points; (h) they disappear simply by fading away in an intergranular space; (i) they never merge with another facular point or with a granule. C. Small dark regions called sunspots. Sunspots are cooler regions on the photosphere. Since they are 1000--1500 K cooler than the rest of the photosphere, they do not emit as much light and appear darker. B. During a total solar eclipse, an exceptional situation occurs, and for a few fleeting seconds, an emission spectrum can be observed. This happens at the very beginning of totality and just after the last bit of photosphere has been covered by the Moon. (Picture 1) For a period of several to perhaps ten seconds the chromosphere is visible as a red arc. (Recall that the chromosphere is a very thin layer just above the photosphere.) Often prominences are seen jutting from the chromosphere. The deep red color of the chromosphere comes from very strong emission in the hydrogen-alpha line at 656 nm. Because the chromosphere is quite rare and hot (with a temperature of about 10,000 K) it shows an emission spectrum in the absence of any light from the much brighter photosphere. Of course, the advance of the Moon soon covers the chromosphere and then the much rarer corona becomes visible as a broad white halo. Within minutes totality reaches completion, the chromosphere reappears on the o pposite side of the Sun followed seconds later by the overwhelming brightness of the photosphere. (Picture 2) Because the chromosphere is so thin, it forms an ideal subject for spectral imaging. A diffraction grating inserted in the light path of a telescope separates the light according to wavelength (just as in your spectrometer). An attached camera will then record the chromosphere imaged in each of the component wavelengths in its emission spectrum. This is the flash spectrum, so-called because of its brief accessibility. B. Because the chromosphere is quite rare and hot (with a temperature of